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OVERVIEW
The distinctive silhouettes of Tibetan and Mongolian tea and beer pitchers—richly decorated with silver and gold—are replete with layers of auspicious symbols, used to imbibe a variety of drink and food and are made using a range of techniques.



SYMBOLIC MOTIFS
Topped with lotus buds and ringed with lotus petals—symbols of untainted purity—other decorative motifs appearing on many Tibetan teapots and beer pitchers include makara spouts and dragon handles. A makara is a mythical animal that is a hybrid of a crocodile and an elephant. Popular throughout many parts of Asia, the lotus, makara and dragon are symbols of celestial, life-giving waters and thus are particularly appropriate for drinking vessels.

Some teapots include the Chinese character shou, indicating longevity. Others display a kirtimukha ‘face-of-glory’ (another celestial beneficent motif) or the eight auspicious symbols: the parasol, two fish, lotus, endless knot, wheel, victory-banner, conch shell and vase.



FEASTING
Popular Tibetan drinks include barley beer (chang), sweet milk tea (gSol ja), butter tea (bod ja) and—in Mongolia especially—fermented mare’s milk (airag). Butter tea must be drunk warm. Cup-covers both keep in warmth and provide an excuse for luxurious ornamentation. One staple of the Tibetan diet is barley flour (tsampa) which each individual mixes in their own cup with the butter tea to form tasty dough ball—literally the bread and butter of Tibet.


 
dergenobles weddingfeastyabshi
Derge Nobles
Photographer: Dr. Albert Shelton
Derge, Tibet, 1905-20
Purchase 1949  49.103
Wedding Feast, Yabshi Phunkhang Kushok
Photographer: Tseten Tashi
Lhasa, Tibet, early 20th century
Gift of Bruce Walker, 2000  2000.36.2.61

abbotsofbatang  
Abbots of Batang and Litang Monasteries with Attendants
Photographer: Reverend Roderick A. Macleod
Kham, Tibet, 1920-30
Purchase 1949  49.1090
 

 

 



FABRICATION TECHNIQUES

Repoussé

Many Tibetan teapots and pitchers are created by hammering sheets of metal into the desired forms. Known as repoussé, this technique can produce very smooth surfaces as well as raised relief and pierced openwork.

Teapot with Makara Spout, Dragon Handle and Lotus Finial
Batang, East Tibet, 18th century
Silver repoussé
Purchase 1920 Dr. Albert L. Shelton Collection  20.337a,b
teapotmakaraspout




Damascene
Some pitchers are made by hammering softer metals, such as gold and silver, into harder metals like iron. One name for this inlaid metal procedure is damascene—named for the city of Damascus, which was once renowned for this technique.
 


Beer Pitcher with Eight Auspicious Symbols, Shou Longevity
Character, Makara Spout, Dragon Handle and Lotus Finial
East Tibet, ca. 1900
Iron, silver, gold
Purchase 1920 Dr. Albert L. Shelton Collection  20.1340
beerpitcher






Wood-turning
Wood-carvers shaped some vessels by turning a lathe to hollow out wooden cups and pitchers from wood burls. Metal-workers then decorated these turned wooden pieces with metal appliqués.



Bowl
Tibet, late 19th-early 20th century
Wood burl, silver
Edward N. Crane Memorial Collection, Gift of Mrs. E.N. and Mr. A. M. Crane, 1911  11.620

bowl

Teapot with Endless Knots and Lotus Finial
Northeast Tibet, late 19th-early 20th century
Wood burl, brass, copper
Purchase 1948 Robert Roy Service Collection  48.9a,b

teapotendlessknots



Banner Images (left to right):


Beer Pitcher with Eight Auspicious Symbols, Shou Longevity, Character, Makara Spout, Dragon Handle and Lotus Finial East Tibet, ca. 1900, Iron, silver, gold, Purchase 1920 Dr. Albert L. Shelton Collection  20.1340

Teapot with Makara Spout, Dragon Handle and Lotus Finial, Batang, East Tibet, 18th century, Silver repoussé, Purchase 1920 Dr. Albert L. Shelton Collection  20.337a,b

Teapot with Endless Knots and Lotus Finial, Northeast Tibet, late 19th-early 20th century, Wood burl, brass, copper, Purchase 1948 Robert Roy Service Collection  48.9a,b

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